Edmonia Lewis! The First American Woman Sculptor of Color

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For further reading 📚
Kirsten Pai Buick, Child of Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History’s Black and Indian Subject (Duke University Press, 2010)
Juanita Marie Holland, “Mary Edmonia Lewis’s ‘Minnehaha’: Gender, Race, and the ‘Indian Maid,” Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts, vol. 69, no. 1/2 (1995), pp. 26–35
Charmaine A. Nelson, The Color of Stone: Sculpting the Black Female Subject in Nineteenth-Century America (University of Minnesota Press, 2007)
Naurice Frank Woods, Jr., “An African Queen at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 1876: Edmonia Lewis’s ‘The Death of Cleopatra,'” Meridians, vol. 9, no. 1 (2009), pp. 62–82.

Image Credits 🖼
Edmonia Lewis / photo by Bluesy Daye / Flickr / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Hagar, 1875 / Smithsonian American Art Museum / CC0 Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, after Michelangelo, Moses, 1875 / Smithsonian American Art Museum / CC0 Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Wendell Phillips, 1871 / National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution / CC0 Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free, 1867 / Howard University Art Gallery / Photo by Trivium Art History / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Hiawatha’s Marriage, 1871 / Cincinnati Art Museum / Photo by Daderot / Wikimedia Commons / CC0 1.0 Public Domain
Edward Augustus Brackett, November 1863 / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Robert Gould Shaw, 1864 / Museum of African American History, Boston & Nantucket / Google Arts and Culture / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Anna Quincy Waterston, c. 1866 / Smithsonian American Art Museum / CC0 Public Domain
Photoglob Co., Roma. Foro Traiano, c. 1890–1906 / Library of Congress / Public Domain
James Anderson, Arch of Constantine, Rome, c. 1858 / Cleveland Art Museum / CC0 Public Domain
Charles Soulier, Rome: Groupe de Laocoon (Vatican), c. 1860 / Cleveland Art Museum / CC0 Public Domain
Charles Soulier, Statue de Tibere, Vatican, c. 1860 / Cleveland Art Museum / CC0 Public Domain
Underwood & Underwood, Sawing marble slabs by hand (about 4 inc. per day) in the famous old quarries of Carrara, Italy, 1902 / Library of Congress / Public Domain
Underwood & Underwood, Huge blocks of world’s finest marble in quarries, Carrara, Italy, 1860–1910 / Library of Congress / Public Domain
Harriet Hosmer on ladder with sculpture of Thomas Hart Benton, ca. 1861–1862 / Schlesinger Library, Harvard University / Public Domain
Emma Stebbins / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain
Emma Stebbins, Angel of the Waters, in Central Park, NYC / photo by k_tjaaa / Flickr / CC BY 2.0
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
Louisa Lander, American Sculptor, in Cosmopolitan Art Journal (Mar. 1861) / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain
G. H. Loomis, Reverend Leonard Grimes. 1860s / Library of Congress / Public Domain
Copy of Polykleitos’s Doryphoros, 1st century BCE–1st century CE / Naples National Archaeological Museum / photo by Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 2.5
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/deed.en
Gibbs, Gardner and Company, “Am I Not A Woman & A Sister” Anti-Slavery Hard Times Token, 1838 / Yale University Art Gallery / Public Domain
Wedgwood Manufactory, Anti-Slavery Medallion, 1787 / Art Institute of Chicago / CC0 Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Hiawatha, 1868 / Metropolitan Museum of art / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Minnehaha, 1868 / Metropolitan Museum of art / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, The Old Arrow Maker, carved in 1872 / Smithsonian American Art Museum / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Hiawatha’s Marriage, 1871 / Cincinnati Art Museum / photo by Daderot / Wikimedia Commons / CC0 Public Domain
Illustration showing Modocs scalping and torturing prisoners, 1873 / Library of Congress / Public Domain
Thomas Eakins, Hiawatha, c. 1874 / Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, The Death of Cleopatra, completed in 1786 / Smithsonian American Art Museum / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, The Death of Cleopatra, completed in 1786 / Smithsonian American Art Museum / photo by Caroline Léna Becker / Wikimedia Commons / CC0 Public Domain
William Wetmore Story, Cleopatra, completed in 1786 / Metropolitan Museum of Art / Public Domain
Guido Cagnacci, The Death of Cleopatra, c. 1645–55 / Metropolitan Museum of Art / Public Domain
Workshop of Gerard Peemans, Cleopatra and Antony Enjoying Supper, from The Story of Caesar and Cleopatra. c. 1680 / Art Institute of Chicago / CC0 Public Domain
Roman, Tetradrachm coin portraying Queen Cleopatra VII, 37–33 BCE / Art Institute of Chicago / Public Domain
Love and Beauty—Sartjee the Hottentot Venus, 1811 / Library of Congress / Public Domain
Edmonia Lewis, Dr. Dio Lewis, 1868 / Walters Art Museum / Public Domain

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